Newest Medications for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP-4) Inhibitors
Although DPP-4 inhibitors have been available for almost 8 years they are newer than sulfonylureas and metformin. The first DPP-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin (Januvia), was FDA approved in 2006 for use with diet and exercise and was later approved in 2007 for its use in combination with metformin or thiazolidinediones. The second DPP-4 inhibitor, saxagliptin (Onglyza), was approved in 2009 for monotherapy and in combination with metformin, sulfonylurea, or thiazolidinediones. The next DPP-4 inhibitor, linagliptin (Tradjenta), was approved in 2011 for both monotherapy and combination therapy with metformin, sulfonylureas, or pioglitazone. The latest DPP-4 inhibitor, alogliptin (Nesina), was FDA approved in 2013 as monotherapy or in combination with metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, and insulin.
DPP-4 inhibitors increase the amount of two proteins (incretin hormones) found in the body, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Incretin hormones tell the body to release insulin and lower blood glucose. GLP-1 also decreases the production of glucose and slows down the absorption of glucose.
Incretin hormones are removed from the body by an enzyme called dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). DPP-4 inhibitors block this enzyme resulting in GLP-1 and GIP to stay in the body longer and, therefore, decrease blood glucose levels.
Efficacy of DPP-4 Inhibitors
Side Effects of DPP-4 inhibitors
List of DPP-4 Inhibitors and their Average Wholesale Price (AWP) per Pill
Next: GLP-1 Agonist